History of Bond and Montgomery Counties, Illinois
Chapter XXIII written by G. N. Berry in 1882
Pages 362 – 367
Position - Boundaries, etc.
The original Zanesville Precinct included within its area the townships of Pitman and Bois D’Arc and was reduced to its present dimensions as an independent division in the year 1873, when the township organizations throughout the county were called into effect. It lies in the western part of the county, south of Pitman, north of North Litchfield and west of Raymond Township, with Macoupin County as its western boundary, and contains a fraction over thirty-four sections of choice tillable land, which in point of fertility and productiveness, is second to none in this part of the State. Topographically, the country may be described as principally of an even face, in the central and northern portions, with occasional undulation of a somewhat irregular character in the southern part, while in the southeast corner the land is more uneven, though in no place is it too rolling for farming purposes.
Soil and Productions
The soil is similar to that of the surrounding townships, being the rich black prairie loam common to this part of the country and everywhere noted for its fertility. This township lies in the great wheat belt of Illinois, and that cereal is the principal staple, although corn, rye, oats, flax, barley, together with the root crops usually found growing in this part of the State, are raised here in abundance, while nowhere in Montgomery County is there better encouragement offered to the fruit-grower. A soil of peculiar adaptability and a climate equally favorable, insure a large yield almost every year, facts of which many of the citizens have taken advantage, as is evidenced by the numerous orchards to be seen in different parts of the township.
Creeks and Timber
The country is sufficiently well watered and drained for farming purposes by several streams that wind throughout the township and numerous small tributaries flowing into them from many points. The largest of these water-courses is the West Fork of Shoal Creek, which has its rise in Section 30, from whence it takes a devious course, flowing in a northeasterly direction about one mile, and then a southeasterly direction, passing through Sections 28, 27, 26, 35 and 36 before leaving the township. There is a small creek in the northern part, flowing through Sections 7 and 8, which affords stock water and drainage to that locality the greater part of the year. During the early spring months, these streams are hardly sufficient to carry off the immense quantities of water which spread over certain parts of the country, and from mere rivulets they become raging torrents, overflowing their banks for considerable distances on either side, and sometimes doing a great deal of injury to the farms through which they pass. From the head of Shoal Creek to the southern boundary of the township are several strips of timber of the varieties usually found in woods of Central Illinois - walnut, hickory, elm, sycamore, maple and oak predominating. The original timber has disappeared long since before the ax of the lumberman, a character who made his appearance coeval with the first settler, and that which is now standing is, comparatively speaking, of recent growth. Much attention is given to the growing of timber and many farmers have surrounding their dwellings and outbuildings groves of considerable magnitude, which, in a few years, will furnish them not only with lumber for all practical purposes, but with fuel as well. That this part of the county was at one time in the dim and remote past inhabited by a prehistoric race possessed of many of the attributes of what we term a high degree of enlightenment, is probable, from the existence of several mounds at different places throughout its territory and numerous strange relics that have been unearthed in several localities. Who were these strange people? Whence came they? Whither did they go? These questions must forever remain to form a melancholy interest in the wondrous past, and a mystery which neither time nor circumstance, nor science, nor the more wondrous future, may reveal. But since their time, another race, mighty in numbers, has come and gone from their ancient homes and favorite hunting-grounds, though yet not quite extinct. When the white man made his first appearance in what is now the territory of Zanesville, it was a favorite hunting-ground and retreat of several tribes of savages, notably among which were the Kickapoos and Pottawatomie’s. Their camping-grounds were usually selected near the source of Shoal Creek and in the timber skirting Macoupin Creek, a small stream just across the line in the adjoining county. When the white settlers began to increase in numbers, these Indians moved farther west, though at different intervals for several years re-visited the scenes of their former camping-places but never to do any mischief. These visits were discontinued about the year 1830, and since that period no Indians have been seen in the northern part of Montgomery County.
We have no data from which to give an exact statement, as to either the time the first settlement of the township was made or the individuals who made it. It is known, however, that a man by the name of Robert Palmer settled near the site of the present village of Zanesville, where he kept a hotel as early as the year 1824. His place was a stopping-point for travelers, on the road leading from Springfield to Vandalia, being one of the first public houses in the county. Palmer proved to be a notorious gambler, blackleg and a very bad character generally. His house was a rendezvous of a gang of thieves and rowdies as bad as himself, and the place became noted throughout the country as a dangerous locality. Several daring robberies having been committed in the neighboring towns and settlements, and the evidence being very plain against Palmer as the perpetrator, he left the country rater unceremoniously and fled for parts unknown. It was afterward ascertained that he went to Iowa, where he was arrested for complicity in a brutal murder, convicted and hanged. So much for the first pioneer of Zanesville. Several transient settlers located in the vicinity of Palmer’s tavern shortly after it was erected, but none of them appear to have taken up land or in any way improve the country. The next actual settler of whom we could learn anything definite was one George Brewer, who entered the land where Zanesville Village now stands, which he laid off into town lots about the year 1828. Through his efforts, a post office was established, which, together with the town, was called Leesburg, after Robert E. Lee, a wholesale merchant of St. Louis, in whose name the land was entered. Brewer appears to have been a man of considerable public spirit, and, seeing an opportunity, as he supposed, of making a fortune in the town which could not help but grow, expended quite an amount of money in various improvements, among which was a good-sized store building. This building was stocked with a miscellaneous assortment of merchandise, purchased at the house of Lee in St. Louis, from which place it was transported in wagons, a distance of about seventy-five miles. Soon other parties, attracted by the promising opening which the village presented, or by the fertile lands in the vicinity, came in, and, by the year 1830, there was a thrifty and enterprising community on the high road to prosperity. The town grew apace; lots were sold rapidly at good round sums; shops of various kinds were established; a school was organized, other storerooms erected, and business of all kinds increased to such an extent that the village at one time was considered the second place of importance in the county. In the year 1829, a settlement was made in the south-west corner of the township by immigrants from the South, among whom can be named Isaac Bailey, James Crawford, Thomas Williams and Zebedee Williams. These were all men of consequence in the early settlement of the township, and left the impress of their characters on their descendants, many of whom still reside in the community which their ancestors founded. A prominent settler in the same locality was Robert Allen, who came in a little later, and who, for a number of years, appears to have been a leading and respected citizen of the township. Between the years 1835 and 1840, Beatty Burke, George Burroughs, Dores D. Shumway and a man by the name of Chastine entered and improved lands near the village of Zanesvillle. Those early pioneers are all dead or have moved to other localities, as the writer was unable to learn any facts concerning them in his canvass for information among the old settlers of the township. From 1840 to 1848, a settlement was made around the head of Shoal Creek and a number of farms improved. The principal men connected with this settlement were Walker Williams, Elgin Smith, Jeff Parrott and Moses Martin, all of whom had formerly resided in the South. Among other prominent settlers were Joseph Vignos, a Frenchman, who located near the central part of the township; Dr. Caldwell, one of the earliest physicians of Zanesville, and S. Smitherman, a noted farmer and stock-raiser, who purchased land near the village, all three of whom are still living. The northeastern portion of the township has been settled more recently, yet in point of progress and improvements it is behind no other locality, and, in many respects, is far superior to some. Since the year 1848, the settlements in different parts of the township have been so simultaneous that a mention of names of early settlers entitled to a notice in these pages would transcend the limits of our space. Suffice it to say, however, that they are justly entitled to all the honors accorded them as founders of a community which occupies a prominent place in the galaxy of townships forming Montgomery County.
Roads and Mills
There was a regularly laid out road through Zanesville Township as early as the year 1830, known as the Jacksonville &amp; Vandalia road, as it connected those two places. It is still traveled, and its direction, though slightly devious, is on the whole pretty direct, the general course being northwest and southeast, and differing but little from the original route. Another early road which was pretty generally traveled was the one leading from Carlinville to Taylorville. Its course through this township was from northeast to southwest, though its direction has been greatly changed of late years, and it is no longer the important though fare that it was during the early days of the county. Among other early established highways were the St. Louis road which passed through the township in a northwesterly direction; the Girard road which crossed through the western part of the township, from north to south, and the Zanesville &amp; Litchfield road, connecting these two points and running in a southeasterly direction from the former place. There are many other roads traversing the township and intersecting each other at different points, but, like other roads of the county, are deserving of no particular description. Among the pioneer industries of Zanesville was the little horse-mill erected by Edward Crawford, in the western part, about the year 1838. This primitive mill was the only one aside from the present mill at the town of Zanesville ever erected in the township, and, for a number of years, was operated almost constantly in order to supply the demands of the neighbors for flour and meal. It was torn down several years ago, and at present there remains no vestige to mark the spot it formerly occupied. The Zanesville Mill was built in the year 1869, by Mossrs, Sharpe, Johnson, & Berry, at a cost of $16,000. It is operated by steam, has three run of buhrs, and when kept running all the time, can grind about 100 barrels of flour per day. From 1869 to 1872, it did an enormous amo